Here is how things are in a real operating system (Windows XP, but the ~same applies to all versions of Windows that I know of, aside from, it seems, Windows 10):
Control Panel > Sounds and Audio Devices > Audio tab:
Note that for sound recording, default device, I can select the Philips VOIP080 (which is a microphone), or I can select the SoundMAX Digital Audio (which is the sound chipset, note that it is also listed as the default sound playback device, which it should be, because like I said, it is the sound chipset, not a microphone or other form of line input). Selecting SoundMAX Digital Audio (or whatever the name of your sound chipset happens to be) will make it so that pressing "record" in any audio recording application will record sounds that are playing on the PC.
Or, to do it through the volume mixer in XP, get to the Recording Control section and put a checkmark in the box under "stereo mix":
Or, to do it through e.g., Goldwave:
Note that the "SoundMAX Digital Audio" chipset is far from being anything special; it is just the onboard sound from an old, low-end Dell PC. Like I said, I've never seen an audio chipset in a PC, no matter how cheap, that didn't allow for direct recording through it in older versions of Windows.
Now let's see what Windows 10 has to "offer":
No sound chipset option there; only the microphone and line-in jacks, neither of which have a device plugged into them (and neither of which are relevant anyway).
How about the volume mixer?
No boxes to check there, not that it would matter if there were, because there is no Recording Control section that you can get to; it doesn't even have a menu. That also means that even if you could select the sound chipset as the recording device, you'd have no way to adjust its recording level.
Grayed out, and that's because nothing is plugged into the microphone or line-in jack, and recording from the sound chipset doesn't seem to be an option in Windows 10.Originally Posted by Bumpkin Using Audacity (which is the same type of program as Goldwave) won't help if Windows 10 has nixed the underlying direct recording functionality, and it seems that they have (still hoping someone can post a screenshot showing that they have direct recording functionality in Windows 10 though).